The Joint Decision Model (JDM)

applicable to all courses

Joint Decision Model (JDM) JESIP Diagram

GATHER INFORMATION AND INTELLIGENCE
During this stage the decision maker defines the situation (i.e. what is happening or has happened) and clarifies matters relating to any initial information and intelligence.

  • What is happening?
  • What do I know so far?
  • What further information (or intelligence) do I want or need?

ASSESS THREATS AND RISKS AND DEVELOP A WORKING STRATEGY
This stage involves assessing the situation, including any specific threat, the risk of harm and the potential for benefits.

  • Do I need to take action immediately?
  • Do I need to seek more information?
  • What could go wrong (and what could go well)?
  • How probable is the risk of harm?
  • How serious would it be? Is that level of risk acceptable?
  • Is this a situation for the Ambulance Service alone to deal with?
  • Am I the appropriate person to deal with this?

Develop a working strategy to guide subsequent stages by asking yourself what you are trying to achieve. Remember that circumstances are constantly changing and so it might be necessary to conduct a Dynamic Risk Assessment at any given stage, according to the principles of the Hierarchy of Control.

CONSIDER POWERS, POLICY AND PROCEDURES
This stage involves considering what policies and procedures might be applicable in this particular situation.

  • What resources might be required?
  • Is there any national guidance covering this type of situation?
  • Do any local organisational policies or guidelines apply?
  • What legislation might apply?

As long as there is a good rationale for doing so, it may be reasonable to act outside policy.

IDENTIFY OPTIONS AND CONTINGENCIES
This stage involves considering the different ways to make a particular decision (or resolve a situation) with the minimum risk of harm.

Options

  • What options are open to me? Consider the immediacy of any threat, the limits of information to hand, the amount of time available, available resources and support, your own knowledge, experience and skills and the impact of potential actions on the situation and the public.

If you have to account for your decision, will you be able to say it
was:

  • Proportionate, legitimate, necessary and ethical?
  • Reasonable in the circumstances facing you at the time?

TAKE ACTION AND REVIEW WHAT HAPPENED
This stage requires decision makers to make and implement appropriate decisions. It also requires decision makers to review what happened once an incident is over.

Action

  • Respond – Implement the option you have selected. Does anyone else need to know what you have decided?
  • Record – Record what you did and why.
  • Monitor – What happened as a result of your decision? Was it what you wanted or expected to happen?

If the incident is continuing, go through the JDM again as necessary.

Review

  • If the incident is over, review your decisions using the JDM.
  • What lessons can you take from how things turned out?
  • What might you do differently next time?

DYNAMIC RISK ASSESSMENT
DYNAMIC: Ever changing and evolving. (HAZARD: Something with the potential to cause harm.)
In order to ensure that staff are protected to the best of ability; dynamic risk assessments must be conducted throughout the incident at all levels. The approach (described below) will allow information to be processed quickly to provide safe working practices.
RISK: Is the likelihood that a hazard will cause loss or harm.
ASSESSMENT: Analysis of information gathered from the incidentsite and used to implement appropriate safe measures of work.

In order to ensure that staff are protected to the best of ability; dynamic risk assessments must be conducted throughout the incident at all levels. The approach (described below) will allow information to be processed quickly to provide safe working practices.

Joint Decision Model (JDM) JESIP Diagram

The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) regulations states that “an employer shall not carry on any work which is liable to expose employees or other persons on the premises to any substance hazardous to health unless an assessment of the risks to health and of the steps which need to be taken has been carried out”.

The Hierarchy of Control principles is applied to this end and can also be applied when carrying out a Dynamic Risk Assessment. It can be remembered using the acronym ERIC/PD:

Joint Decision Model (JDM) JESIP Diagram

These first four steps ensure that the risk has been reduced as much as possible by starting from the top (removing the hazard altogether) and working down (controlling the risk). These steps will make the site or workplace safer for everyone, whereas the final two steps only serve to protect the individual staff member.